## What is Linear Programming?

Linear Programming (LP) is a mathematical optimization technique used to maximize or minimize a linear objective function, subject to a set of linear constraints. It is a powerful tool for modeling and solving real-world problems in areas such as economics, engineering, management, and logistics. LP is essentially about finding the best solution from all possible solutions that satisfy the given constraints. Eager to know more about the topic? Explore the suggested external site, where you’ll find extra details and complementary information. https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2017/02/lintroductory-guide-on-linear-programming-explained-in-simple-english/, broaden your understanding of the subject!

## Linear Programming Components

LP problems involve the following components:

**Decision Variables:**They represent the unknown quantities to be determined. They are denoted by x1, x2, …, xn.

**Objective Function:**It represents what is to be maximized or minimized. It is in the form of a linear combination of decision variables. It is denoted by z = c1x1 + c2x2 + … + cnxn, where c1, c2, …, cn are the coefficients of the decision variables, and z is the total value of the objective function.

**Constraints:**They represent the conditions or limitations imposed on the decision variables. They are in the form of linear equations or inequalities in the decision variables. They are denoted by a11x1 + a12x2 + … + a1nxn ≤ b1, a21x1 + a22x2 + … + a2nxn ≤ b2, …, am1x1 + am2x2 + … + amnxn ≤ bm, where aij are the coefficients of the decision variables, and bi are the constants representing the constraints.

## LP Problem Formulation Steps

**The following steps are** involved in formulating an LP problem:

**Identify the Decision Variables:**Determine the unknown quantities to be determined, and assign them symbols such as x1, x2, …, xn.

**Formulate the Objective Function:**Determine what is to be maximized or minimized, and express it as a linear combination of the decision variables, using the coefficients c1, c2, …, cn, assigned to each variable.

**Formulate the Constraints:**Determine the conditions or limitations imposed on the decision variables, and express them as linear equations or inequalities in the decision variables, using the coefficients aij, assigned to each variable, and the constants bi, representing the constraints.

**State the Assumptions:**Specify any assumptions made in formulating the LP problem, such as non-negativity, integer values, or non-integer values of the decision variables.

**Write the LP Problem:**State the LP problem in standard form or canonical form, which involves converting any inequalities into equalities, and introducing slack or surplus variables as necessary, to obtain a set of equations in the form Ax = b. standard form or canonical form.

## LP Problem Solving Techniques

LP problems can be solved using various techniques, including:

**Graphical Method:**It involves graphing the constraints on a coordinate plane, and identifying the feasible region, which is the intersection of all the constraints. The optimal solution is the point in the feasible region that maximizes or minimizes the objective function.

**Simplex Method:**It is an iterative algorithm that starts with an initial feasible solution, and moves along the edges of the feasible region, towards the optimal solution, by selecting the variable that increases or decreases the objective function the most, subject to the constraints, and then repeating the process until no further improvement is possible.

**Interior Point Method:**It involves solving a sequence of linear equations, which define the path from the initial feasible solution to the optimal solution, while ensuring that the constraints are satisfied at every step. It is faster than the simplex method for large-scale problems, but requires more computational resources.

## LP Applications

LP has numerous applications in various fields, such as: We’re committed to delivering a rich learning experience. For this reason, we’ve chosen this external site containing worthwhile details to enhance your study of the subject. linear programming calculator https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2017/02/lintroductory-guide-on-linear-programming-explained-in-simple-english/!

**Production Planning:**It involves determining the optimal allocation of resources to maximize the production output, subject to constraints such as labor, materials, and time.

**Finance:**It involves optimizing the portfolio of investments to maximize the return on investment, subject to constraints such as risk, diversification, and asset allocation.

**Transportation:**It involves minimizing the transportation costs to distribute goods from multiple sources to multiple destinations, subject to constraints such as capacity, distance, and time.

**Marketing:**It involves determining the optimal pricing and advertising strategies to maximize the market share and profit, subject to constraints such as demand, competition, and cost.

## Conclusion

Linear Programming is a powerful optimization technique that involves identifying the decision variables, formulating the objective function and constraints, stating the assumptions, and solving the LP problem using graphical, simplex, or interior point methods. It has numerous applications in production planning, finance, transportation, marketing, and other fields, and has contributed significantly to the advancements in operations research and management science.

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